Saturday, February 8, 2020

A history of ultrasound physics and the properties of the transducer Research Paper

A history of ultrasound physics and the properties of the transducer - Research Paper Example Prior to the second World War, sonar, which is the technique of transmitting waves of sound through water and observing the echoes that return to characterize the objects that are submerged, was an inspiration to the pioneers of ultrasound investigators in exploring ways and in turn applying the medical diagnosis concepts. This paper will highlight the history of ultrasound and discuss the properties of transducers. History of ultrasound According to Orenstein, (2008) Pythagoras, popular for his theory about right-angled triangles was the pioneer of ultrasound, since he invented the sonometer, which was used to study musical sounds. Boethius (c. 480-c.525) was the first to give comparison between sound waves to waves that were produced when a pebble was dropped into calm water. Pierre Curie, a French physicist discovered piezoelectricity in 1877, the moment that ultrasound was conceived. Later on, as Orenstein continues to assert, sonographic imaging was developed by French professor and physicist Paul Lavengin. Many scientists had the desire to see inside the human body and in turn developed probes and scopes for diagnosis and treatment during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For instance, the discovery of X-rays by William Conrad in 1865 played an important role in the history of ultrasound. Moreover, in 1912, when the Titanic sank while on its maiden voyage made people to be curious in detecting submerged s ubstances. Like many other technological advances, ultrasound also owes its development to the World War. Lavengin was called upon by the French government to develop an object that was able to detect the sub marines of the enemy during the World War One. The device he invented applied the piezoelectric effect he had learned as Curies’ student (Orenstein, 2008). The transducer is one of the most critical componenets of any diagnostic ultrasound system. There exists various types of ultrasound transducers that can be chosen prior to performing an ultrasound investigation, therefore, much attention should be accorded towards choosing the most suitable transducer for the ultrasound application (Gibbs, Cole, & Sassano, 2009 p27). However, Lavengin did not complete the device he developed in 1917 so that it could be used during the First World War, but it indeed formed the basis of sonar detection that was developed in the World War II (Orenstein, 2008). In 1928, Sergei Sokolov, a Russian physicist made important suggestions that saw ultrasound being used for industrial purposes that included detecting flaws in metallic devices. Ultrasound is a new aspect in the field of medicine. For instance, in the 1920s and the 1930s, ultrasound was used by members of European football clubs as a physical therapy. Additionally, as reported by Orenstein, ultrasound was utilized in the sterilization of vaccines as well as for cancer therapy in conjunction with radiation therapy. Subsequently, in 1948, other ultrasound pioneers such as Douglas Howry subjected his efforts towards developing a B-mode equipment that compared pathology to cross-sectional anatomy. The late 60s and early 70s was the period of sonic boom. A 2D echo was pioneered by Klaus Bom. Don Baker, John Reid and Dennis Watkins were able to develop a pulsed Doppler in 1966, which was able to detect the flow of blood from the different corners of the heart. Real-time ultrasound was developed in

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Miss Evers’ Boys portrays the emotional effects Essay Example for Free

Miss Evers’ Boys portrays the emotional effects Essay Miss Evers’ Boys portrays the emotional effects of one of the most amoral instances of governmental experimentation on humans ever perpetrated. It depicts the government’s involvement in research targeting a group of African American males (â€Å"The Tuskegee Experiment†), while simultaneously exploring the depths of human tragedy and suffering that result, as seen through the eyes of Eunice Evers. The viewer watches as a seemingly innocuous program progresses into a full-blown ethical catastrophe—all the while taking Miss Evers through a moral journey, with her decisions having ramifications on the life and well-being of her best friends—her â€Å"boys. † I. Structure This movie deals with the ethical considerations present in human experimentation. The government, wanting to mimic the Oslo Experiments, intends to study a population of AfricanAmericans inflicted with syphilis. The movie takes place in alternate settings, transitioning between a 1973 Senatorial hearing and the site of the actual study in Alabama, beginning in 1932 and moving forward. Miss Eunice Evers, a nurse at a local Tuskegee hospital, is the centerpiece of the movie. II. Setting Plot Summary With an ominous lead-in quote, Miss Evers’ Boys begins to tell the tale of an emotionally courageous young woman and her struggle to protect her â€Å"children. † Within the first few frames  of the movie, the viewer is automatically entrenched into the already tenuous history of racial tension in America—except, this time, under the auspices of segregation founded upon disease. The movie begins, placing the viewer as an observer of a 1973 U. S. Senate Hearing, where we are first introduced to Miss Eunice Evers. Miss Evers is testifying as a nurse, one who took the nurse’s oath to protect the health of those in her care. The claimed Senatorial goal is to discover the truth underlying the â€Å"Tuskegee Study. † Miss Evers worked in the study from 19321972. The movie progresses throughout the course of the hearing, with testimony by Miss Evers and reminiscent scenes telling the tale of the study. In the beginning, Miss Evers firmly supports the goal of the initial plan—to provide care and treatment to those suffering from syphilis. â€Å"It was the dawn of a new day,† explains Miss Evers. At this point (pre-study), she believes that the government is sending her patients, and her city, the best funding and medical support available. The viewer is then introduced to Miss Evers’ Boys—a folk music group. 1 The musicians (four of them) are the first patients to provide blood samples, one of them being Caleb, an eventual love-interest of Miss Evers. Each of the men test positive for syphilis. At this point in the movie, everyone (including Miss Evers) is still under that assumption that â€Å"bad blood† is the culprit for the disease. Ultimately, the funding for the initial study disintegrates. After a visit to Washington, various gentlemen confront Dr. Brodus, the head doctor in Tuskegee, with an offer for a new rationale for funding. The gentlemen explain their intentions of studying the African-American population, much like the Caucasian population in the Oslo Experiments (1891-1910). The government then reveals the true nature of the experiment—the proposed study of untreated African-Americans dealing with syphilis. 1 The government promises future treatment and The group names their band after Miss Evers when she drives them to their first musical show. 2 proclaims the future potential of the Tuskegee Experiment, appealing to Dr. Brodus’ pride. Dr. Brodus agrees, naming the study, The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in The Negro Male. 412 men, afflicted with syphilis, participate in the study. In a telling interaction involving one of the first patients, Miss Evers suggests that the doctors explain to the study group that they are providing â€Å"back shots. † Through her deceit, Miss Evers thus begins to involve herself in the â€Å"treatment. † The tension she feels manifests itself in her facial features; the viewer can see her apprehension in this instance and throughout the movie. She is torn, but yet continues to help Dr. Brodus conduct the study. As 6-months turns into years, Miss Evers continues to hide the secret behind the study. She urges the men to continue the study, in hope of future treatment—treatment that never comes, even through the eventual availability of penicillin. Miss Evers’ ultimate decision as to how she deals with the care and treatment of her â€Å"boys† will be left to the viewer. With the journey, however, comes a tumultuous story, exposing the hypocrisy of the United States Government through the eyes of Eunice Evers. Throughout the movie, as an audience, we want Miss Evers to defy all conventions and simply provide the necessary medicine to the patients. Yet, she struggles throughout with the pros and cons of such a decision. On one hand, she wants to support the experiment; yet, on the other, she wants to protect and comfort her friends. As we finally see in the end, as seen through Miss Evers’ unique perspective, while one may question Miss Evers, it is the Senators themselves, and the government agents before them, who prove to be more worthy of moral appraisal. III.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Imagery in Othello Essays -- Othello essays

Imagery in Othello  Ã‚         The vast array of natural imagery in Shakespeare’s tragic drama Othello dazzles the audience’s minds. Let us survey in this essay the varieties of imagery referred to by the playwright.    The vulgar imagery of Othello’s ancient dominates the opening of the play. Francis Ferguson in â€Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other† describes the types of imagery used by the antagonist when he â€Å"slips his mask aside† while awakening Brabantio:    Iago is letting loose the wicked passion inside him, as he does from time to time throughout the play, when he slips his mask aside. At such moments he always resorts to this imagery of money-bags, treachery, and animal lust and violence. So he expresses his own faithless, envious spirit, and, by the same token, his vision of the populous city of Venice – Iago’s â€Å"world,† as it has been called. . . .(132)    Standing outside the senator’s home late at night, Iago uses imagery within a lie to arouse the occupant: â€Å" Awake! what, ho, Brabantio! thieves! thieves! thieves! / Look to your house, your daughter and your bags!† When the senator appears at the window, the ancient continues with coarse imagery of animal lust: â€Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram / Is topping your white ewe,† and â€Å"you'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse; you'll have your nephews neigh to you; you'll have coursers for cousins and gennets for germans.† David Bevington in William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies comments that the imagery in the play is quite mundane, and he tells why:    The battle of good and evil is of course cosmic, but in Othello that battle is realized through a taut narrative of jealousy and murder. Its poetic images are accordingly focused t... ...s Desdemona before stabbing himself to death:    Cold, cold, my girl!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Even like thy chastity. O cursed slave!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Whip me, ye devils,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From the possession of this heavenly sight!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Blow me about in winds! roast me in sulphur!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   O Desdemona! Desdemona! dead! (5.2)    WORKS CITED    Bevington, David, ed. William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies. New York: Bantam Books, 1980.    Ferguson, Francis. â€Å"Two Worldviews Echo Each Other.† Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970.    Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos.   

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Forest

Forests are precious national resource whim not only play significant role in national condor but help in pollution control and maintaining logical balance. These offer a number of direct indirect advantages which have been realised sin time immemorial. Direct Advantages 1. Forests provide valuable timber for dome tic and commercial use. Industries like paper, matt making, plywood, sports goods, lakh and furniture at directly based on raw materials derived from forest 2.Forests supply a number of minor produce which are utilised in different industries and domes* tic uses. These include lakh, gum and resins, tannin material, medicines, herbs, honey, spices, etc. 3. Forests offer employment to about 4 mil ­lion people to earn their livelihood in forest based occupations, i. e. , lumbering, sawing, furniture mak ­ing, forest produce collecting, etc. 4. Auction of forests for commercial use fetches annual income to state exchequer. 5. Export of forest products earns valuable foreign exchange to the country. 6.Grazing of cattle in the forests helps in dairy farming and cattle rising. 7. Forests are the natural habitat for wild life and birds which attract tourists, holiday makers and hunters. These may be developed as very good picnic or tourist centers in the form of wild life sanctuaries and national parks which have good employment and income generating potential. Indirect Advantages 1. Forests are the moderators of climate. These have effective role in controlling humidity and tem ­perature and precipitation. 2. Forests play dominant role in carbon cycle.These absorb atmospheric carbon-di-oxide and help in maintaining the purity of air and controlling atmospheric pollution. 3. Forests help in controlling soil erosion, soil degradation and floods. That is why these are very helpful in land reclamation and flood control. 4. Forests help in water percolation and thereby maintain underground water table. 5. Decay of plant leaves provides humus to the soils an d increases their fertility. 6. Indian forests are rich in wild life housing about 500 species of animals. 7.Forests help in maintaining natural scenic beauty which every year attract a number of tourists and nature lovers. 8. Forests provide natural habitat to a number of primitive tribes which are part of our rich cultural heritage. Their mode of living, economy and cul ­tural traits are based on forest environment. 9. Forests provide recluse to rashes, saints and hermits who have enriched our religious and cultural thoughts. Mere a visit of such quiet serene environment relieves physical and mental strains and refurbishes new vitality and vigor.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Cyclon Hellas Sa In The Industrial Production Of Lubricants Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1887 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? PART 1 Cyclon Hellas is a company that operates in Greece in the industrial production of lubricants and the production and trade of packaged lubricants as also at the distribution of liquid fuels. Cyclon Hellas main target, is to provide quality products and services that respect both the needs of consumers and the environment. Since the beginning of the company which is estimated around 1981, through research and technological performance the company archived a high quality and ecological dimension of the products it developed.   Even the high competition not only in Greece but also in rest of Europe and Middle East, Cyclon Hellas has achieved to expand and play a great role among these markets only by maintaining the same philosophy, which springs not only from its consumers liability and satisfaction but also their partners collaboration.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Cyclon Hellas Sa In The Industrial Production Of Lubricants Finance Essay" essay for you Create order PART 2             INCOME STATEMENT (Amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 000)                   YEAR YEAR          2009 2008 Turnover 372.651 403.615 Cost of Sales 349.536 377.393 Gross Profit/Loss 23.115 26.222       Selling Expenses 15.891 16.669 Administrative Expenses 4.725 4.529 Plus/ Minus Other Operating Income/Expenses 3.778 3.362       Profits before Interest/Depreciation 6.277 8.386 And Taxes/EBITDA          Plus/Investments income/Profits 3.78 591 From Associate Companies          Minus Financial Expenses 2.084 2.976 Profit before Depreciation and Taxes 4.571 6.001 Minus Total Depreciation 2.697 2.409       Net Profit before Tax 1.874 3.592 Minus Taxes 820 1.436       Profit after Tax 1.054 2.156       ATTRIBUTABLE TO:    Equity Shareholders 1.060 2.147 Minority Interest (6) 9 Net profit/(loss) after tax 1.054 2.156       Basic earnings/(losses) per Share EPS (in euro) 0,0397 0,0807 Diluted earnings/(losses) per share (in euro)          Other State revenue    Foreign Currency Translation (8) 1 TOTAL       1.046 2.157                ANNUAL BALANCE SHEET (Amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 000)       YEAR YEAR    2009 2008 ASSETS    Non-Current Assets    Tangible Assets 33.090 32.752 Investments in Real Estate 2.007 2.015 Intangible Assets 603 844 Participation in Subsidiaries and Affiliated Companies 33 33 Goodwill 467 467 Other Long Term Receivables 4.288 4.792 Total non-Current Assets 40.488 40.903 Current Assets    Investments    Inventories 8.510 9.295 Trade and Other Receivables 49.028 57.538 Cash and Cash Equivalents 4.243 6.034 Total Current Assets 61.781 72.867 TOTAL ASSETS 102.269 113.770       SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES    SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY    Share Capital 12.532 12.532 Reserves 2.105 2.113 Retained earnings 14.705 13.645 Total Shareholders equity attributed to shareholders of the parent 29.342 28.290 Minority Interest 18 24 Total Equity 29.360 28.314 Long Term Liabilities    Long Term loans /(Leasing Liabilities) 373 16.745 Deferred Tax Liabilities 3.740 3.510 Employee Benefits 3.735 3.750 Grants 92 310 Trade and Other Long Terms Paybles 85 74 Total Long Term Liabilities 8.025 24.389 Short Term Liabilities    Trade and Other Sort Terms Paybles 35.686 33.906 Short Term Loans 29.198 29.198 Long Term Liabilities (payable next year) 0 4.000 Other payables and Accrued Expenses    Total Short Term Liabilities 64.884 61.067       TOTAL LIABILITIES 72.909 85.456 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY       102.269 113.770 CASH FLOW (Amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 000)             YEAR YEAR    2009 2008 Profit/(losses) before Taxes and Minority Interest 1.874 3.592 Plus / (minus) adjustments for    Depreciation 2.697 2.409 Forecasts 142 (678) Grants Depreciation (165) (147) Transaction Changes (235) (6) (Profit)/loss from sale of fixed assets (268) (52) Interest charges 2.024 2.590 Operating Profit before adjustments in Working Capital    (Increase)/decrease in receivables 9.016 (14.268) Decrease/ (Increase) in Inventories 736 (1.164) Increase/(decrease) in liabilities 1.616 381 Interest Paid (2.024) (2.454) Income Tax Paid (335) (394) Cash flows from operating activities 15.078 (10.953)       Investing Activities    Receipts from sales of Tangible and Intangible Assets 2.919 4.422 Interest received 262 158 Receipts from sale of Subsidiaries 0 83 Cash flow from Investing Activities 2.534 3.981       Financing activities    Proceeds from loans 0 16.919 Payment of Liabilities from Financial Leasing 238 131 Receipt from fixed assets grants 0 91 Repayment of Loans 14.097 0 Cash flow from financing activities 14.335 16.839       Net increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents (1.791) 1.905 Cash and Cash Equivalents at 1st of January 6.034 4.129             Cash and Cash Equivalents at the end of December    4.243 6.034 PART 3 Group Ratios for Years 2009-2008 YEAR 2009 2008 RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED       27,8 21,5 RETURN ON EQUITY       12,8 24,5 RETURN OF SHAREHOLDERS CAPITAL (CAPITAL AFTER TAX)    7,2 14,7 RETURN ON ASSETS       1,83 3,15 GROSS PROFIT MARGIN       6,2 6,5 CURRENT RATIO       0,95 1,19 QUICK RATIO       0,48 0,58 DEBT / EQUITY RATIO       0,03 1,34 STOCK TURNOVER PERIOD       9,3 8,6 DEBTORS TURNOVER       26,2 26,7 CREDITORS TURNOVER       37,2 32,8   PART 4    STOCK MARKET RATIOS          CAPITALAIZATION          12.532.474,80 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ PRISE PER SHARE (price taken from Athens Stock Market DD 20/01/2010) 0.72 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ TOTAL SHARE AMOUNT          17.406.215,00 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬       EARNINGS PER SHARE    0.04 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬          P/E RATIO    18.0             DIVIDENTS IN YEAR 2009 1.060.000,00 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬    DIVIDENTS PER SHARE 0.017 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬    DIVIDEND YIELD 2.36%                      PART 5                  INCOME STATEMENT (Amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 000)   (FORECAST FOR 1 YEAR)             YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR    forecast % change       2010 2009-2010 2009 2008 Turnover 354.018 -5,0% 372.651 403.615 Cost of Sales 333.000 -6,0% 349.536 377.393 Gross Profit/Loss 21.018 -9,0% 23.115 26.222          Selling Expenses 15.500 -2,5% 15.891 16.669 Administrative Expenses 4.900 3,7% 4.725 4.529 Plus/ Minus Other Operating Income/Expenses 3.900 3,2% 3.778 3.362          Profits before Interest/Depreciation 4.518 -28,0% 6.277 8.386 And Taxes/EBITDA                Plus/Investments income/Profits 700 85,0% 378 591 From Associate Companies                Minus Financial Expenses 1.530 -26,5% 2.084 2.976 Profit before Depreciation and Taxes 3.688 -19,3% 4.571 6.001 Minus Total Depreciation 2.750 5,7% 2.697 2.409          Net Profit before Tax 938 -50,0% 1.874 3.592 Minus Taxes 430 -52,0% 820 1.436          Profit after Tax 508 -52,4% 1.054 2.156 It is expected a decrease of 5.0% concerning the Turnover of year 2010 due to the global financial crisis and the inflation change (plus the huge economical crisis in the Greek Markets) The Sales are also decreased since the increase of the gasoline, lubricants and fuel prise. The group has no problems with exchanges differences, due to the physical hedging policy. Selling Expenses will continue to grow (-2.5%). Administrative Expenses are also growing(3.7%) Longterm Loan on a euribor rate and fixed spread Financial Expenses are Decreasing (26.5%)payment for Leasing Taxation Rate is 25% for Years 2008-2009-2010 PART 6 ANNUAL BALANCE SHEET (Amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 000)          (FORECAST FOR 1 YEAR) YEAR YEAR YEAR    2010 2009 2008 ASSETS       Non-Current Assets       Tangible Assets 32.000 33.090 32.752 Investments in Real Estate 2.000 2.007 2.015 Intangible Assets 580 603 844 Participation in Subsidiaries and Affiliated Companies 33 33 33 Goodwill 467 467 467 Other Long Term Receivables 4.100 4.288 4.792 Total non-Current Assets 39.180 40.488 40.903 Current Assets       Investments       Inventories 8.7460 8.510 9.295 Trade and Other Receivables 47.672 49.028 57.538 Cash and Cash Equivalents 3.700 4.243 6.034 Total Current Assets 59.832 61.781 72.867 TOTAL ASSETS 99.012 102.269 113.770 SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY AND LIABILITIES       SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY       Share Capital 12.532 12.532 12.532 Reserves 2090 2.105 2.113 Retained earnings 14.200 14.705 13.645 Total Shareholders equity attributed to shareholders of the parnt 29.500 29.342 28.290 Minority Interest 17 18 24 Total Equity 29.939 29.360 28.314 Long Term Liabilities       Long Term loans /(Leasing Liabilities) 150 373 16.745 Deferred Tax Liabilities 3.900 3.740 3.510 Employee Benefits 3.700 3.735 3.750 Grants 70 92 310 Trade and Other Long Terms Paybles 100 85 74 Total Long Term Liabilities 7.920 8.025 24.389 Short Term Liabilities       Trade and Other Sort Terms Paybles 33.939 35.686 33.906 Short Term Loans 27.214 29.198 29.198 Long Term Liabilities (payable next year)    0 4.000 Other payables and Accrued Expenses       Total Short Term Liabilities 61,153 64.884 61.067          TOTAL LIABILITIES 69.073 72.909 85.456 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY    99012 102.269 113.770 Creditors Turnover will remain the same as 2009 (37.2) Inventories Turnover will remain the same as 2009 (9.3) Debtors Turnover will also remain the same as 2009 (26.2) Tangible Assets Will decrease equal to the annual depreciation PART 7 ANALYSIS OF Cyclon Hellas SA (GROUP) The year of 2009 was marked from : a) the impact of the global financial crisis (reducing demand, reducing prices, foreign exchange and credit risks, given the uncertainty of the market). b) The reduction of prices of petroleum products (fuels, base oils) as a result of falling international prices of crude. c) The Reduction on the demand for lubricants. Profitability (all amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬000) The Groups turnover CYCLON Hellas SA in that year amounted to ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 372.651 against ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 403.615 in the corresponding period of 2008, a decrease of 7.98%.The decrease was primarily due to lower prices of petroleum products (fuel) of the parent company and the fall in sales of other activities and in particular lubricants. Operating earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) In a group operating profit before tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) decreased by 25% and determined the amount of ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 6.277 compared to ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 8.386 in fiscal year 2008.This decrease is the result of lower sales of lubricants and the profits. Net Earnings The net results of the Group, after taxes, profits amounted to ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 1.054 thousand compared to profits ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 2.156 in the corresponding last year 2008. Net profit after tax The net profit after tax were detrimental to this use at ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 244 compared profit ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 106 for the corresponding last year. The Probability Ratios Reveal: Roce: We have an increase on the level of profits in relation to overall capital employed to produce the profits (27.8 / 21.5). So the performance of the group is increasing. Roe: The decrease (almost 50%) of the efficiency of shareholders value. Roa: Since the great amount of decrease in Profit before Taxes from 3.592 to .1874 and the small deference between Total Assets of the 2 years we see that the ratio has decreased from 3.15 to 1.83 so the Group has not achieved its objective, which is the increase in sales volume and increase market share. Return of Shareholders Capital : We see , the great decrease of the Net Profit after Tax form 2.156ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ to 1.054ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ got us to the result of the simultaneously decrease of the Return of Shareholders Capital ratio from 14.7 to 7.2 (over 50%) Liquidity (all amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬000) The company achieves effective management of liquidity risk primarily through the equation to credit period, and secondly by providing sufficient reserves (cash and bank) as well as a rapid means of securing bank financing in the event of an unforeseen emergency. The Liquidity Ratios reveal: Current Ratio: Due to the fact that the change of the rate is small (1.19 to 0.95) we assume that the Group will not have any problem to cover all its Short Term Liabilities as its Short Term Assets remain in a great level. Quick Ratio: Even though we see a low rate in both years 0.48 0.58 and the Inventories (8.510ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 9.295ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬) are not in a level that in an emergency case should be easily converted into cash in order to cover the Liabilities, the Marketable securities (16.490ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 21.812ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬) and the debtors receivables (26.768ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ 29.582ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ ) could help the Group to solve an unexpected Liquidity problem. Capital Structure (all amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬000) The Group manages its capital to ensure that Group companies will continue to be viable maximizing return to shareholders by optimizing the ratio debt to equity. The Groups capital structure consists of debt , cash and cash equivalents and shareholders equity of the parent company include share capital, reserves and retained earnings. The capital structure of the Group is monitored on an ongoing basis. Part of this monitoring is the review of capital costs and risks. Debt/Equity Ratio: We see the great deviation between the two periods ratio 0.03 1.34 t inflects to the repayment of the loan(16.000ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬) in year 2008 and that has helped the Group to come in such a position that can have a health operating function and also a good finance growth. Working Capital (all amounts in ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬000) Working capital is the amount of capital which is readily available to an organization. That is, working capital is the difference between resources in cash or readily convertible into cash (Current Assets), and cash requirements (Current Liabilities). As a result, the decisions relating to working capital are always current, i.e. short term, decisions. n addition to time horizon, working capital decisions differ from capital investment decisions in terms of discounting and profitability considerations. They are also reversible to some extent. (Considerations as to Risk appetite and return targets remain identical, although some constraints such as those imposed by loan covenants may be more relevant here). Current Assets 61.781ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬-85.456ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬=-11.128ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ (year 2009) As we have a negative number we assume that the Group will not be able to operate, and that it has no sufficient cash flow to service long term debt, and to satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses. Current Assets 72.867ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬-85.456ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬=-12.589ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬(year 2008) As we have a negative number also in year 2008 , we assume that the Group will not be able to operate, and that it has no sufficient cash flow to service long term debt, and to satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses. Next we will use the measure of cash flow within the operating cycle. This represents the time difference between cash payment for raw materials and cash collection for sales. The cash conversion cycle indicates the firms ability to convert its resources into cash We use the Ratio from: Years 2009 2008 Stock Turn Over Period 9.3 8.6 days Debtors Turnover 26.2 26.7 days Creditors Turnover 37.2 32.8 days Operating Cycle 2008 = 8.6+26.7-32.8 = 2.5 Operating Cycle 2009 = 9.3+26.2-37.2= -1.7 Best Inventory managerial at year 2009 which helps the Group for uninterrupted production although it reduces the investment in raw materials , it minimizes reordering costs and hence increases cash flow. The Operating Cycle has a 4.2 difference between the two operating years , the funding of the Working Capital is inevitable.(Bank loan Factoring) The cash balance in year 2008 allows the Group to meet day to day expenses, but reduces cash holding costs. In year 2009 credit terms may l attract customers, such that any impact on cash flows and the cash conversion cycle will be offset by increased revenue and hence Return on Capital

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Schizophrenia - A Genetic and Environmental Review - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2739 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/07/31 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Schizophrenia Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Schizophrenia is defined as a severe brain disorder characterized by disturbances of thoughts, perceptions, volition, and cognition, which affects about 1% of the world population today (Ozawa et al., 2006, p. 546). The disorder can be incapacitating to those who live with it and prevent normal societal function. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Schizophrenia A Genetic and Environmental Review" essay for you Create order Despite its frequency in the population, scientists and medical professionals still struggle to find a conclusive explanation for why some develop schizophrenia. This may be in part due to its ties to both environmental and genetic factors. Throughout the literature there are extensive hypotheses on what the contributing factors to development of the disorder are, but a consensus remains that no one factor defines susceptibility. Environmentally, Adult onset of schizophrenia seems to be linked to neonatal care. Maternal viral infection (Ozawa et al., 2006) as well as maternal vitamin D deficiency from improper diet and sunlight intake (Pluta, 2010) leads to small but significant increases in offspring disorder development. Genetic pre-disposition is also a well-known factor to be considered. Currently well researched, disruption of dopaminergic pathways in schizophrenic patients are becoming more prevalent as it seems to play a crucial role in symptomology of the disorder. More speci fically, abnormal dopamine function appears to give rise to much of the positive symptoms (psychosis) (Abi-Dargham et al., 2000). In addition to the factors that increase likelihood of development, treatment is heavily discussed in the literature. Medication is a crucial baseline component to treatment as it can keep patients functional, so that other psychosocial therapies can occur. Unfortunately, the symptomology that demands medication also prevents approximately 50% of patients from maintaining a regimen. Increased numbers of environmental treatments are being researched to rectify this (Velligan et al., 2008). Schizophrenia is generally a hard disease to measure because its symptoms vary widely across the population. The 2 domains that most of the symptoms fit within are positive are negative. Positive symptoms are analyzed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. This scale accurately places how severe a patients symptoms (psychosis, delusions, etc.) are and detects changes over time. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) rates how severely a patient presents in the 5 categories on th e scale. (Lindenmayer, Harvey, Khan, Kirkpatrick, (2007). Unfortunate limitations to these measurement scales are that patients frequently go on and off medications making it hard to monitor improvement in symptoms over time. Also, patients can cross lines from one subtype to another as well as more minor subtypes, making categorization difficult. Genetic Studies The effect of dopamine on Schizophrenia has recently begun to be heavily investigated in the scientific community. Dopamine receptors, specifically D2 appear to be a probable contributing factor to the classic symptoms of Schizophrenia. The receptor availability of dopamine was measured in patients at the standard level as well as after drug administration to reduce available dopamine in 36 subjects. 18 of these subjects were Schizophrenic patients and the other 18 were matched controls. The dopamine receptor availability in each subject was measured with single-photon computerized emission tomography (SPECT) and the drug administered to reduce dopamine concentration was ? ±-methyl-para-tyrosine (? ±-MPT). Upon the first initial analysis, no significant difference in standard dopamine receptor availability was noted between the Schizophrenic and control subjects. However, after a decrease in available dopamine, significant results arose (Abi-Dargham et al., 2000). Upon depletion of dopamine with ? ±-MPT, there was a significant increase in receptor availability in both Schizophrenic patient s and control subjects. This is an intuitive explanation as a decrease in dopamine would trick the brain into believing it needs more receptors to reach its normal level of dopamine binding. However, the increase in dopamine receptor availability was significantly higher in patients with Schizophrenia (19% ? ± 11%) compared to the control subjects (9% ? ± 7%) after the drug treatment. This data is illustrated below (Figure 1). Through this data it can be deduced that if much of the dopamine was reduced by ? ±-MPT, then there would be a difference of 8% ? ± 6%, compared to 15% ? ± 7% of D2 receptors filled in the control vs. Schizophrenic patients, respectively. This data provides significant evidence that contributes to the literature on dopamine involvement with Schizophrenic symptomology. Dopamine appears to be highly involved with the D2 receptor in patients with Schizophrenia, but not as much in the normal population (Abi-Dargham et al., 2000). In addition to dopaminergic activity, other underlying molecular mechanisms may also play a role in schizophrenia development. Microarray technology was utilized to examine gene expression patterns in 24 schizophrenic or control patients. This technology can pinpoint differential gene expression patterns, and the underlying molecular mechanisms can then be examined. Experimental analysis was conducted on subjects diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and controls, all of whom died from natural causes. After death the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the subjects was dissected into ~0.5cm tissue cubes. In the 89 genes that showed differential expression patterns in schizophrenic vs. control subjects, a categorical pattern emerged. The majority of these genes were involved in mechanism of signal transduction, neurotransmission, neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and most prominently myelination (Hakak et al., 2001). Of these 5 categories, all but myelination appear to have an i ncrease in gene expression compared to the control. Although not conclusively followed up with, this data indicates that multiple, if not all these genes may play a role in the symptomology of schizophrenia. The downregulation of the myelination genes plays a role in this theory, as the 5 genes in this category all aid in formation of oligodendrocytes. Commonly known, oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the central nervous system. The primary function of myelin is to aid in cell signaling and protect neurons. With deficient production, this can cause significant changes in brain circuitry. In addition, the authors noted that in humans, myelin production by oligodendrocytes within the region examined (prefrontal cortex) begins to occur from late adolescence to early adulthood. This coincides with the period that both men and women begin to report symptoms of schizophrenia development. The conclusion can be drawn that this deficiency may go unnoticed for much of the early stages of lif e, but as myelin production begins this could be a tipping point for disease onset (Hakak et al., 2001). In addition to disruptions in neurological pathways, specific gene loci have begun to be implicated in risk for schizophrenia development. Over 100 of these loci have now been located, however this research remains generally fragmented (Harrison, 2015). This has remained the case because no one aberrant gene can be directly correlated to schizophrenia development. It has been maintained in the literature that multiple aspects of genetic predisposition linked to specific environmental triggers must be connected to lead to a schizophrenia diagnosis. Previous human and animal studies have linked the DISC1 gene to mental illness and schizophrenic phenotype. This gene is involved in numerous activities, making it hard to decipher which aspect of its disfunction may lead to this symptomology. A shortened DISC1 transgene from a human source was inserted under the ? ±CaMKII promoter in C57BL/6 mice. Expression of this gene leads to dominant negative phenotype. Two lines of transgene mice w ere created and compared to one wildtype line. The ? ±CaMKII promoter was chosen specifically because of its role in gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. From 3-8 months of age several behavioral analyses exams and in vivo MRI scans were conducted to survey a wide variety of characteristics in the tg C57BL/6 mice (Hikida et al., 2007). A staple phenotype in a large percentage of schizophrenic patients is abnormal sizing of the lateral ventricles. In vivo MRI scanning of tg line 10 at 6 weeks and 3 months showed significantly larger left lateral ventricles compared to wildtype. In the same line, the ratio between left and right ventricles as well as lateral ventricles to whole brain volume was shown to be larger in tg compared to wildtype, however, this only became significant at 3 months of age. (Figure 2). Behavioral analyses also showed that tg mice had lower pre-pulse inhibition (a measure of cerebral cortex sensorimotor gating) and increased hyperactivity compared to wildtype. These are common characteristics in schizophrenic patients, however other common characteristics such as anxiety, impaired motor coordination, and working memory were not affected (Hikida et al., 2007). Inserting a shortened DISC1 transgene into C57BL/6 mice resulted in tg mice lines that demonstrated significant pathogenic and behavioral traits seen in patients of schizophrenia. This does well to contribute to the present literature that the DISC1 is implicated in some aspects of schizophrenic symptomology and development. Because this transgene came from a human source this gives a strong external validity for generalization to the human population, but as always there may be limitations such as the way this pathology and behavior may shift after years of medical treatment or psychological therapy (Hikida et al., 2007). Environmental Studies Schizophrenia is strongly theorized to be linked to both genetic and environmental causes. A well-known environmental factor that could lead to fetal development of schizophrenia is maternal contraction of viral infection. Evidence from previous studies provided evidence to suggest that maternal viral infection during developmental stages in pregnancy lead to higher rates of fetal schizophrenic development. This viral infection appears to be non-specific as research has been done on influenza, polio, rubella, and measles may all have the same effect. This information led researchers to believe that maternal immune response, particularly inflammatory cytokines, may affecting fetal neurological development rather than the viral infection itself. To simulate this environmental factor in schizophrenic development, double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) was utilized. This method was used to replicate a viral infection because it causes a non-disease specific immune reaction. BALB/c mice were bred in the lab and from 2-weeks to 3-weeks post copulation pregnant females were injected with the RNA daily (Ozawa et al., 2006). To measure if the offspring of the poly I:C injected mothers demonstrated characteristics comparable to Schizophrenia, 3 criteria were measured. These were maturational delay, damage to dopaminergic systems, and cognitive impairment. Along with cognitive impairment, the effects of two common anti-psychotic drugs on this were measured. These drugs were clozapine and haloperidol. After in jection the pregnant mothers were observed to gain less weight than expected as well as produce a lower number of pups. The offspring of these mice were measured to have significantly damaged dopaminergic systems as well as cognitive impairment only after maturing into adults. Clozapine and haloperidol also helped to curb the symptoms of the cognitive impairment (Ozawa et al., 2006). This is a very useful animal model for understanding the association between gestational viral infection and offspring schizophrenia risk, however limitations apply to a comparison to a human model. The most significant limitation being that it is still not conclusively known at what stages of pregnancy an infection has the most risk on the fetus. This may skew data that could be obtained in a human study because women may be less inclined to report or remember a viral infection in early stages of pregnancy as they may not realize the effect it has on a fetus that is not showing yet. Interestingly, while the immune system is more susceptible to contracting viruses in colder months like winter and spring, this is also the time of year that vitamin D deficiencies are also most common. This time of year, also coincides with significantly more babies born that will develop Schizophrenia in adulthood. The most direct way to gain vitamin D is through the skin being exposed to sunlight. Thi s obviously becomes less feasible in the winter. Through the processing of vitamin D in the human body, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) is produced. Infant blood samples from the Newborn Screening Biobank were analyzed for concentrations of (25[OH]D3). 424 Danish, schizophrenic and control matched pairs were used (Pluta, 2010). The data indicated a significant variation in the amount of 25[OH]D3 present in newborn blood throughout different months of the year. There was also a significant association between developing Schizophrenia in adulthood and the amount of 25[OH]D3 present in the blood at time of birth. In comparison to the fourth quintile of infants, infants with the highest 20% (first quintile) of 25[OH]D3 at time of birth had a 1.71% relative risk of developing schizophrenia in adulthood, while those in the lowest 20% (fifth quintile) of 25[OH]D3 at time of birth had a relative risk of 2.1% in comparison to the fourth quintile. The relative risks of the development of schizophrenia in controls is shown below (Figure 3). The most interesting component of the research is that while prenatal vitamin D plays a significant role in the future development of schizophrenia, the trend is not linear. Compared to the fourth quintile both the first and fifth quintiles had a higher risk of disease development. It did appear, however, that vitamin D deficiency plays a more prominent role (Pluta, 2010). Through literature analysis it becomes apparent that both genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the development of schizophrenia. In the realm of treatment for this disease, a multitude of drug treatments are available, some of which are argued to treat better than others (Leucht, 2009). It is also important to consider the effect of environment on drug treatment and patient care for schizophrenia in general. While schizophrenia is a disease that somewhat demands drug treatment to keep patients norma lly functional, the adherence to medication is a significant problem in the population. The symptomology that demands drug adherence also promotes patient disassociation from treatment. Three different environmental treatment approaches were taken on subjects with diagnosed schizophrenics. These treatments were full-CAT treatment, Pharm-CAT, and TAU (treatment as usual). Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) is a personalized treatment designed to promote patients maintaining a medication schedule through a specific environmental setup and organization in the home. Pharm-CAT is essentially the same, however the organization only pertains to specifically medication-related lifestyle components (Velligan et al., 2008). The initial regimens lasted for a period of 9 months and medication adherence was measured through counting of untaken pills during periodic home visits. After this time-period the CAT environments were not removed, but home visits were for another 6 months. Adherence to medication treatments was shown to be significantly higher in both Full-CAT and Pharm-CAT patients compared to usual treatment patients during all stages of the experiment. However, in the area of functional outcomes, Full-CAT patients only performed better than Pharm-CAT in the initial 9 months of the study, and only Full-CAT patients outperformed traditional patients once home-visits were removed (Velligan et al., 2008). This study provides significant data to support how helpful individualized environments can be to medication adherence and normal functioning in patients with Schizophrenia. In all cases patients with any form of CAT treatment outperformed those undergoing their usual treatment. However, this treatment did get less effective when visitors stopped checking in on the patients. This is an important distinction, as a limitation to this treatment is that it does not appear to significantly effective in promoting self-sufficiency in schizophrenic patients (Velligan et al., 2008). References Abi-Dargham, A., Rodenhiser, J., Printz, D., Zea-Ponce, Y., Gil, R., Kegeles, L., . . . Laruelle, M. (2000). Increased Baseline Occupancy of D2 Receptors by Dopamine in Schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(14), 8104-8109. Hakak, Y., Walker, J., Li, C., Wong, W., Davis, K., Buxbaum, J., . . . Fienberg, A. (2001). Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America., 98(8), 4746-4751. Harrison, P. (2015). Recent genetic findings in schizophrenia and their therapeutic relevance. Journal Of Psychopharmacology, 29(2), 85-96. Hikida, T., Jaaro-Peled, H., Seshadri, S., Oishi, K., Hookway, C., Kong, D., . . . Sawa. (2007). Dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mice display schizophrenia-associated phenotypes detected by measures translatable to humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America., 104(36), 14501-14506. Leucht, S., Komossa, K., Rummel-Kluge, C., Corves, C., Hunger, H., Schmid, F., . . . Davis, J. (2009). A Meta-Analysis of Head-to-Head Comparisons of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry., 166(2), 152-163. Lindenmayer, Harvey, Khan, Kirkpatrick. (2007). Schizophrenia: Measurements of Psychopathology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America,30(3), 339-363. Ozawa, Hashimoto, Kishimoto, Shimizu, Ishikura, Iyo. (2006). Immune Activation During Pregnancy in Mice Leads to Dopaminergic Hyperfunction and Cognitive Impairment in the Offspring: A Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 59(6), 546-554. Pluta, R. (2010). Neonatal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. JAMA, 304(18), 1996. Tseng, K., Lewis, B., Lipska, B., ODonnell, P. (2007). Post-Pubertal Disruption of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Dopamineâ€Å"Glutamate Interactions in a Developmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry.,62(7), 730-738. Velligan, D., Diamond, P., Mintz, J., Maples, N., Li, X., Zeber, J., . . . Miller, A. (2008). The Use of Individually Tailored Environmental Supports to Improve Medication Adherence and Outcomes in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(3), 483-493.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Analytical Essay on The Good Corn by H.E Bates and...

The short stories, â€Å"Turned†, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and â€Å"The Good Corn†, by H.E Bates provide strong examples of how the representation of characters influence’s the reader’s perception of a text. Both stories depict similar characters: a middle-aged, childless wife, her husband and an 18-year old girl who works for them. They are both about a similar situation: man cheats on wife with girl and girl falls pregnant. However, the author’s of the text are from very different backgrounds and this is reflected in their stories. Although there are many similarities between â€Å"The Good Corn† and â€Å"Turned†, the values reflected in these stories, their resolutions and the reader’s perception of them are vastly different due to the contexts of†¦show more content†¦Even though it was Mortimer who made the first move, â€Å"Suddenly he found himself trying to help her and in a clumsy way trying to kiss her.. .† (pg8), Elsie was blamed for the incident and made out to be the villain. Mortimer said â€Å"I didn’t know what I was doing (despite the fact that he is more than double her age). She kept asking me. It was her who kept asking me† (pg 9). Elsie’s youth was only mentioned because of the beauty it gave her, â€Å"During the summer the face of the girl had reddened with sun and air and as autumn came on it seemed to broaden and flatten, the thick skin ripe and healthy in texture†, (pg8) and not because it may impair her ability to think rationally as opposed to a man over 18 years her senior. These narrow-minded views could very possibly come from the average man in the 1950’s. Gerta, like Elsie, was also shy, big built and beautiful. It was acknowledged that she had â€Å" womanhood without, helpless infancy within†, (pg 15) Gerta was referred to as ‘the child’ (pg15), throughout the text. Gerta, like Elsie was also mentioned to be flirtatious with men. â€Å"Her peals of frank laughter.... (Much like that of Elsie’s before Mr Mortimer kissed her)... rose from the area gate as she stood talking with the always admiring tradesmen. Mrs Marroner had laboured long to teach her more reserve with men...† (pg16). However, in ‘Turned’, Gerta’s flirtatiousness was considered to be a failing of her youth and ignorance of